Research paper citing references

So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Your quotation might end up looking like this:. The brackets around the word [money] indicate that you have substituted that word for other words the author used.

To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay.

As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content.

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When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. For example, if an original passage by John Archer reads:. The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style.

In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following:.

Add citations to your document

A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include:.

An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph.

In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example:.

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  6. When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however.

    Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles.

    Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. Number of individual issue is entered in parentheses and is obligated to enroll if pagination numbering of each individual issue starting from 1.

    To mark a part of individual issue is used abbreviation Pt. To list supplement use the abbreviation Suppl. Pages of the article are written from first to last and without repeating the common parts. All numerical data are mutually separated by punctuation symbols without spaces except the mark Pt. Edition of the book except the first : written by English spelling for item numbers and adds ed.

    If there is additional information about the volume, the words are transferred from the template. Ordinal number of the volumes of the book if it is published in several volumes by an expression vol.

    How Do I Cite Sources? -

    City of publishing: Enter the first city listed in the original and for the other is added etc If the institution is listed as the publisher and its organizational part, the data is separated by a comma. Date of publishing: is transcribed from the title page and if publication year is not specified written is a year copyright. Book Pages: listed only when we quote part of the book, preceded by the label.

    Dissertation: to dissertation is referred to as the angular brackets, and put the title or subtitle of the work. Pages refer to the total number of pages of the dissertation. The biggest problem which participants in the academic process encountered is plagiarism 9 , 10 , This is one of the most common ways of compromising the academic integrity of the author and cause of constant conflict in scientific-research sphere of interest. People who read can even in the very sentences recognize whether something is written in original work or just taken as a piece from another text.

    The references, as an indispensable part of any scientific and professional work, contribute to the quality of work, speaks of the sources used and thus the depth of information on the subject by which the work is dedicated. The process of preparation of each work should begin by consultations with existing resources, potential research and then writing the work giving it a personal stamp.

    There are many different definitions of plagiarism. In the wider academic community, plagiarism is a serious breach of ethical standards and a disciplinary liability and sanctions of various types and weights 8. Then, which institutions or which scientific body committee at the national or international level, when plagiarism is proven, can sanction someone and what are the sanctions.

    It is necessary to work on improvement of the mechanisms for early and sophisticated plagiarism detection through software applications, which in the foreseeable future must become compulsory for every editor of an indexed journal to use. Here will be mentioned one of examples published by CEON www. For the same reasons, in DRUNPP journals this was done for authors who published more than five papers in analyzed period.

    Its rationale seems to be quite simple. Some authors are allowed to publish limitlessly without regular reviewing in journals of formally high international prestige. This brings them quite tangible benefits so called points important for their careers and incomes.

    Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper

    In return, the editors collect from them a substantial amount of money for fictitious editing job and, on top of this, as a sort of tip, some fictitious citations to help their journals maintaining the status of highly esteemed publications. Being practical people, in order to protect themselves from crossing the self-citation rate limits, they occasionally put citations onto other DRUNPP journal account In just a few years DRUNPP journals grew from anonymous to the most popular international journals in neighboring Serbia, attracting a fastgrowing number of papers, and collecting even faster-growing publication charges.

    There are many signs that the family business is on the right track. It is assumed that the most cited scholars and experts in the academic community, who have published their research results in one of the journals indexed in the reference world recognized online databases, whose articles are available for scientific validity.

    This all through their representation in the form of abstracts or full article on the website of these on-line databases. Biomedical journals printing in Bosnia and Herzegovina indexed in on-line databases in Scientometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing science. In practice, Scientometrics often uses bibliometric methods for measuring the impact of scientific publications. Modern Scientometrics is based largely on the work of Derek J.

    Garfield founded ISI — Institute for Scientific Information and is considered to be the father of scientometrics and methods of evaluation of scientific publications. Research Methods of scientifically important publications include qualitative and quantitative methods and computer analysis approach 6 , 8 , Garfield has been striving to mathematical representation, so he developed several factors that allow the assessment value and importance of scientific publications, including the most important impact factor IF and the H-index.

    Each article has its impact factor. Impact factor shows how much scientific paper, published in a magazine is quoted. Title of the scientific paper contains a brief description of the content. Impact Factor IF in the academic journal is a measure that reflects the average number of citations of articles published in the journal.

    Impact factor is used to compare different journals in a particular area. In a given year, the impact factor IF of the journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the previous two years. H-index is an index that attempts to measure the productivity and impact of published work of scientists. The index is based on the basis of the most cited papers and the number of citations that papers received in other publications. Th is index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as department or faculty, as well as journal.

    H-index proposed by Jorge E.

    How Do I Cite Sources?

    Hirsch, a physicist at UCSD, as a tool for determining the relative quality 7 , In other words, a scholar with an index of h has published h papers each of which has been cited in other papers at least h times. Thus, the h-index reflects both the number of publications and the number of citations per publication.

    The index is designed to improve upon simpler measures such as the total number of citations or publications The index works properly only for comparing scientists working in the same field; citation conventions differ widely among different fields. It is clear that the h-index of the oldest biomedical journal Medical Archives is significantly higher with h-index of 10, which means that the scientist who in this magazine published 10 papers have at least 10 citations for each work in other journals.

    National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Acta Inform Med v.